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2015-01_dc

28 D+C Vol.42.2015:1 media sector, he says, and to guarantee access to information for citizens. The BMZ plans to bundle measures more tightly and, accordingly, created a single budget heading for them in 2014: “Promotion of media, access to information and freedom of ex- pression in cooperation countries”. Görsdorf points out that multi-year support programmes will be possible on this basis. Like other donors, the BMZ does not only sup- port professional media organisations. It also funds measures implemented by non-governmental or- ganisations and educational institutions. Moreover, the BMZ cooperates with government agencies, fully aware that the topic “media” often touches on political interests and is thus considered sensitive. This is especially so in countries with major deficits in the areas of freedom of expression and media freedom. The BMZ and DW Akademie have drafted a stra- tegic model for promoting freedom of expression and access to information in a holistic manner. It identifies four key areas as being crucial for media development: the political and legal environment, professionalism and economic viability of the me- dia sector, Mysorekar Young people are growing up in a fast changing media environment. In many developing countries, Facebook and mobile phones have become part of daily life. Media landscapes and media usage are changing rapidly worldwide. Gallup, the research firm, regularly analyses trends in different parts of the world. More and more people, for instance, have an internet con­ nection at home. In Latin America, the share has risen from 10 % to 40 % in the past eight years; in East Asia, it has jumped from 13 % to 55 %. The share of the world popu­ lation that is linked to the web is 39 %. According to Gallup, some regions are likely to leapfrog the personal computer and opt for mo­ bile devices to surf the internet right away. Access to mobile phones is already close to universal: 89 % of all households worldwide have a cell phone. The sharpest rises have re­ cently been witnessed in Sub-Saha­ ran Africa and Asia. But whereas technical access to the media is growing globally, freedom of expression presents a sobering pic­ ture. According to a survey by Free­ dom House, the US-based non-gov­ ernmental organisation, press freedom worldwide has recently slumped to a ten-year low. Reporters without Borders have also noticed that problems are worsening. On its website, the organisation flags up the number of media people killed each year while going about their work. In December 2014, the year’s death toll amounted to 66 journalists and 19 netizens and citizen journalists. “One problem we face in our support of journalists who are in danger is that in many parts of the world, we increasingly lack governments, the institutions we used to address,” says Christian Mihr, chairman of Reporters Without Borders Germany. “Govern­ ments are actors that we can indict, engage in dialogue and perhaps even secure commitments from.” Instead, the organisation is increasingly being challenged by failing states and non- state armed groups such as Mexican narco-mafias or the ISIS terrorist group in Syria and Iraq. The safety of journalists remains high on the agenda of many media development organisations. Inter­ national Media Support (IMS), for example, runs safety training courses for journalists in Pakistan, South Sudan and the Philippines. Aside from the acute physical threats to which many media people are exposed all over the world, a new risk has emerged in recent years: journal­ ists, human-rights activists and oth­ ers who raise critical voices leave digital footprints when they conduct internet research, contact inform­ ants or even simply use their own PC. Such footprints can be easily traced back by repressive regimes. IMS, DW Akademie and others have therefore begun to run projects on secure on­ line communication, using safe technology. (am) The changing media world Online journalists in Cairo, Egypt.

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